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mahAbhAratam
tasya khila bhAho

harivamsham

harivamsha parva
ch 14

 sagara utpattiH
emergence of emperor sagara

 

--o)0(o--  

janamejaya uvAcha - janamejaya asked:

kathaM sa sagaro jAto gareNa eva sahAchyutaH |
kim arthaM cha shaka AdInAM kShhatriyANAM mahaujasAm || 1-14-1
dharmaM kula-uchitaM kruddho rAjA nirasat achyutaH |
etat me sarvam AchakShva vistareNa tapodhana || 1-14-2

"How emperor sagara took birth along with poison? What for the clans like shaka and others have discarded kshatriya convention? And what for the emperor sagara is enraged at them and drove them off... please elucidate these points...

vaishampAyana uvAcha - vaishampAyana replied:

bAhoH vyasaninaH tAta hR^itaM rAjyam abhUt kila |
haihayaiH tAlaja~NghaiH cha shakaiH sArdhaM vishAmpate || 1-14-3
yavanAH pAradAH chaiva kAmbojAH pahlavAH khasAH |
ete hi api gaNAH pa~ncha haihaya arthe parAkramam || 1-14-4

When sagara's father bAhuka is given to irretrievable lechery, hunting and a flighty life, then the onslaught of haihaya-s, tAlaja~Ngha-s, shaka-s, has become more forceful, and then taking support of five others who are the myrmidons of haihaya-s, namely yavanA-s, pAradA-a, kAmbojA-s, pahlavA-s and khasA-s, those three usurped the kingdom of ayodhya... so they say...

hR^ita rAjyaH tadA rAjA sa vai bAhuH vanaM yayau |
patnyA cha anugato duHkhI vane prANAn avAsR^ijat || 1-14-5
patnI tu yAdavI tasya sa-garbhA pR^iShThato.anvagAt |
sapatnyA cha garaH tasyai dattaH pUrvam abhUt kila || 1-14-6

When the kingdom is usurped thus, then king bAhuka went to woods to live in misery, just his wives helping him, where he breathed his last. At that time, when his prime-wife who belonged to yadu dynasty has become pregnant, other co-wives became envious of her pregnancy and administered poison to her- so we hear...

sA tu bhartuH chitAM kR^itvA vane tAm adhi-Arohata |
aurvaH tAM bhArgavaH tAta kAruNyAt samavArayat || 1-14-7
tasya Ashrame cha taM garbhaM gareNa eva saha achyutam |
vyajAyata mahAbAhuM sagaraM nAma pArthivam || 1-14-8

She desperately arranged a pyre for her husband and she too mounted it for self-immolation. But, noticing the futurity of her pregnancy, godly sage aurva thoughtfully averted it, and brought her to his hermitage, where she delivered the king sagara, who took birth along with the poison earlier administered to his mother by her co-wives...

aurvaH stu jAtakarma Adi tasya kR^itvA mahAtmanaH |
adhyApya veda-shAstrANi tato.astraM pratyapAdayat || 1-14-9
AgneyaM tu mahA-ghoram amaraiH api duHsaham |

Sage aurva himself performed the boyhood ceremonies like naming, letter-writing, upanayana etc. ceremonies, and taught Vedic scriptures to him. Besides, he gave him a deadly missile called aagneya-astram, which is an uncontainable weapon even to gods...

sa tena astra-balena ajau balena cha samanvitaH || 1-14-10
haihayAn nijaghAn Ashu kruddho rudraH pashUn iva |
AjahAra cha lokeShu kIrtiM kIrtimatAM varaH || 1-14-11
tataH shakAn sa yavanAn  kAmbojAn pAradAM tadA |
pahlavAn chaiva niHsheShAn kartuM vyavasitastadA || 1-14-12
te vadhyamAnA vIreNa sagareNa mahAtmanA |
vasiShThaM sharaNaM gatvA praNipetur manIShiNam || 1-14-13
vasiShThastvatha tAn dR^iShTvA samayena mahAdyutiH |
sagaraM vArayAmAsa teShAM dattva abhayaM tadA || 1-14-14

Then sagara with his might, and that of the missile he possessed, started annihilating haihaya-s ruthlessly, as god rudra would be annihilating living being at the end of era... then he embarked to wipe out shaka-a, yavanA-s, kAmboja-s, pArada-s, and pahlavA-s completely. When sagara started eliminating them thus, then they reverently sought the refuge of noble-minded vashiSTha. Noticing their plight the high-minded vashiSTha gave them a safe haven and dissuaded king sagara from that onslaught...   

sagaraH svAM pratij~nAM cha guroH vAkyaM nishamya cha |
dharmaM jaghAna teShAM vai veSha anyatvaM chakAra ha || 1-14-15
arddhaM shakAnAM shiraso muNDaM kR^itvA vyasarjayat |
yavanAnAM shiraH sarvaM kAmbojAnAM tathaiva cha || 1-14-16
pAradA mukta-keshAH cha pahlavAH shmashru-dhAriNaH |
niHsvAdhyAya vaShaTkArAH kR^itAstena mahAtmanA || 1-14-17

Holding on to his own pledge to root out incompatibles, also keeping the promise given by his mentor to the same folks in view, sagara let them off ordering a different identity for them. He ordered half-shaved heads to shaka-s; clean-shaven heads to yavanA-s; pArada-s and kAmbojA-s to hang their head hair loose; pahlavA-s shall grow beards. He debarred them all from the study of Vedic text and scriptures.

shakA yavana kAmbojAH pAradAH cha vishAmpate |
kolisarpAH sa mahiShA dArdyAH cholAH sa keralAH || 1-14-18
sarve te kShatriyAH tAta dharmaH teShAM nirAkR^itaH |
vasiShTha vachanAt rAjan sagareNa mahAtmanA || 1-14-19

In fact, all the shaka-s, yavanA-s, kAmboja-s, pArada-s, koli-sarpa-s, mahiSha-s, dArdya-s chola-s, and kerala-s, are kshatriya-s only... but, emperor sagara precluded them from kshatriya dharma for their unprincipled actions, according to the verdict of sage vashiSTha.

khasAM tu pArAM cholAM cha madrAn kiShkindhakAM tathA |
kauntalAM cha tathA va~NgAn sAlvA kau~NkaNakAn tathA || 1-14-20
sa dharma-vijayI rAjA vijityemAM vasundharAm |
ashvaM vai prerayAmAsa vAji-medhAya dIkShitaH || 1-14-21

On conquering kings of khasA, pAra, chola, madra, kiShkindha, kuntala, vanga, konkaNa provinces, and to become a righteous conqueror of the world he undertook the vow for ashwa-medha ritual, horse-sacrifice ritual, and released the horse, challenging any king who dares to capture that horse.

Here a reading difficulty is there. In the starting compound of first foot, a letter's position alters the reading. If it is read as khasAMstuShArAm, it becomes khasA-s and tuShaaraa-s. BORI records this - khashAs tu ShArAsh cInAsh ca - China is also brought in. It is read as above in chitrashala edition.

tasya chArayataH saH ashvaH samudre pUrva-dakShiNe |
velA samIpe apahR^ito bhUmiM chaiva praveshitaH || 1-14-22
sa taM deshaM tadA putraiH khAnayAmAsa pArthivaH |

While that horse is being moved around provinces it reached the south-easterly zone, and at seashore indra abducted that horse and hid it underneath the earth. sagara then ordered his sons escorting that horse to dig up that place to locate the ritual horse.

AseduH te tataH tatra khanyamAne mahArNave || 1-14-23
tam Adi-puruShaM devaM hariM kR^iShNaM prajApatim |
viShNuM
kapila rUpeNa svapantaM puruShottamam || 1-14-24

Then those princes unremittingly dug the place to oceanic depths until they reached shrI-hari reposing there in the getup of sage kapila.

tasya chakShuH samutthena tejasA prati budhyataH |
dagdhAH te vai mahArAja chatvAraH tu avasheShitAH || 1-14-25
 barha-ketuH su-ketuH cha tathA dharma-rathaH nR^ipaH |
shUraH pa~ncha-janaH chaiva tasya vaMshakaro nR^ipaH || 1-14-26

Awakened by their digging sage kapila opened his eyes, and those eyes have opened fire and burnt all the sons of emperor sagara, excluding four, namely barha-ketu, su-ketu, dharma-ratha and the valiant pa~ncha-jana, who are scheduled to further the lineage of sagara.  

prAdAt cha tasmai bhagavAn hariH nArAyaNo varAn |
akShayaM vaMsham ikShvAkoH kIrtiM cha api anivartanIm || 1-14-27
putraM samudraM cha vibhuH svarga vAsaM tathA akShayam |
putrANAM cha akShayAn lokAn tasya ye chakShuShA hatAH || 1-14-28

shrIhari donning the role of sage kapila accorded boons to those four sons of sagara, saying "let there be eternality for ikshvAku dynasty, let that dynasty have an unvarying renown, let samudra, ocean-god, take birth in your lineage, let you all have unreduced stay in heave, let your brothers too, burnt by the heat if my eyes, have eternal abode in heaven..."  

samudraH cha arghyam AdAya vavande taM mahIpatim |
sAgaratvaM cha lebhe sa karmaNA tena tasya vai || 1-14-29

taM cha ashvamedhikaM saH ashvaM samudrAt upalabdhavAn |
AjahAra ashvamedhAnAM shataM sa sumahAyashAH |
putrANAM cha sahasrANi ShaShThiH tasya iti naH shrutam || 1-14-30

samudra, the ocean-god, receiving reverence from emperor sagara venerated that king in his turn, and that king thus acquired the title of sagara, an ocean, as he dug earth to oceanic depths... sagara also performed hundred ashwa-medha, horse-rituals and begot sixty-thousand sons... thus we told...

--o)0(o--

iti shrImahAbhArate khileShu harivaMshe harivaMshaparvaNi sagarotpattirnAma chaturdasho.adhyAyaH

Thus, this is the fourteenth chapter of first canto called harivamsha-parva, in harivamsha-purANa, the sequel of mahAbhArata, narrating the legend of emperor sagara.

  --o)0(o--

   

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E&OE - content is subject to revision : dated 2-8-07